Case Studies On Postpartum Depression

Case Studies On Postpartum Depression-47
The DSM-IV added “the modifier “With Postpartum Onset” to describe episodes of Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar I or II Disorder and Brief Psychotic Disorder with onset within 4 weeks after childbirth” (Korstein, 2010, p. The upcoming edition of the DSM-V proposed an extension of the postpartum onset specifier to 6 months. “If included, this would help increase access to insurance coverage to mental health services in pregnancy and postpartum. “More than 60% of women have an onset of symptoms within the first 6 weeks postpartum, providing primary care physicians with the perfect opportunity for diagnosis” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995, n.p. “Multiple investigations into the etiology of postpartum depression have not reached a consensus” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995), hence the inclusion of it in the DSM-IV as separate category diagnostically different from Major Depression.

The DSM-IV added “the modifier “With Postpartum Onset” to describe episodes of Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar I or II Disorder and Brief Psychotic Disorder with onset within 4 weeks after childbirth” (Korstein, 2010, p. The upcoming edition of the DSM-V proposed an extension of the postpartum onset specifier to 6 months. “If included, this would help increase access to insurance coverage to mental health services in pregnancy and postpartum. “More than 60% of women have an onset of symptoms within the first 6 weeks postpartum, providing primary care physicians with the perfect opportunity for diagnosis” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995, n.p. “Multiple investigations into the etiology of postpartum depression have not reached a consensus” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995), hence the inclusion of it in the DSM-IV as separate category diagnostically different from Major Depression.

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Other hormonal factors such as estrogen levels which decrease significantly in the postpartum period and regulate mood, memory, and cognition and brain function has been thought to play a major role in the onset of PPD.

“The specific effects are best characterized in the dopamine system where estrogen increases dopamine turnover through the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, degradative enzymes, and turnover dopaminergic receptors” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995, n.p.).

Symptoms include low mood, anxiety, crying, irritability, insomnia, and mood lability.

Because of its commonality, it is viewed as a ‘normal’ phenomenon. At the other end of the spectrum is Postpartum psychosis, a rare illness only affecting 2 out of every 1000 women who give birth (APA, 2000).

The connection between childbirth and psychological instability has been historically validated. In 1858, Marce’ in his Treatise on Insanity of Pregnant and Lactation Women, “linked negative emotional reactions with childbirth (Griffin Hospital, 2004).

It was not until 1958 with the publishing of the DSM II that “Psychosis with Childbirth” was even included. “Of the 13 studies addressing the role of socioeconomic factors in PMD/PPD, only two found that low socioeconomic status is predictive of PMD/PPD” (Epperson, 1999). Women who have a prior history of depression or mood disorders displayed a significant influence on the occurrence of PMD/PPD during postpartum. Biological factors do not create as much as a susceptibility to Postpartum mood disorders as psychological and social factors. In a controlled re-test study of psychological, environmental, and hormonal variables of Postpartum Mood Disorders, O’Hara et al. Her and her husband Yao, who is Chinese-American both worked full-time until Sudi became pregnant with their second child, Emma. Sudi first pregnancy went smoothly and she experienced no complications. Additionally, it will encourage funding for researchers investigating perinatal mood disorders incidence and initiation” (Stone, 2010). Sudi, 29, is a married caucasian mother of two girls living in an affluent community in Maryland. Postpartum Depression also referred to as Postpartum Major Depression (PMD), “occurs in approximately 10 percent of childbearing women and may begin anywhere between 14 hours to several months after delivery” (Epperson, 1999). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(2), 180-186. PPD exhibits all the typical symptoms of depression, but is distinguished by its manifestation after the childbirth.

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