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The adoption of these principals parallels themselves with the increasing reliance on a quantitative understanding of the world.
He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.
He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.
Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.
It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use.
Intuitive nursing practice (which is still the norm in nursing), when performed automatically, without care, vigilance, and routine critique, can result in many significant negative implications.
The student nurse develops intuitive, skillful performance in nursing by first learning the tools of critical thinking, and then routinely applying reflective, critical thought in routine nursing situations.Kerry Walters describes this ideology in his essay Beyond Logicism in Critical Thinking, "A logistic approach to critical thinking conveys the message to students that thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal (and, to a lesser extent, formal) logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical, abstract, universal, and objective.This model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accept it as canon"."First wave" logical thinking consisted of understanding the connections between two concepts or points in thought.It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker. It is interesting to note that the ANA (American Nursing Association) Standards have set forth the framework necessary for critical thinking in the application of the “nursing process." Unfortunately this framework can be executed superficially or substantively, as can any such framework.We believe that skilled nursing depends upon a well-reasoned philosophy of nursing rooted in a deep and rich conception of critical thinking.Plato recorded Socrates' teachings and carried on the tradition of critical thinking. Beyer (1995), critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments.Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance. The "first wave" of critical thinking is often referred to as a 'critical analysis' that is clear, rational thinking involving critique. During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged.Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices.The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking.