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Increasing concerns for future fiber supplies in pulp and paper industries has shifted interest in nonwood sources from agriculture residues and aquatic plants.Aquatic plants with short growth cycles, in abundance, and with low lignin are a potential fiber source.Fresh stems were dried for determination of chemical composition and papermaking as described in detail below.
Of the five aquatic plant species, Cyperus rotundus, Scirpus grossus, and Typha angustifolia were chosen based on their fiber dimensions and derived values (lower and higher values as determined from Section 2.2 above) for evaluation of their chemical composition.
The stems were ground and sieved with 250 μm sieve.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Darul Ehsan), Malaysia Received 17 January 2015; Accepted 25 April 2015Academic Editor: Mahbub Hasan Copyright © 2015 Nordiah Bidin et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Although the major source of fiber for paper production is from wood plant, nonwood aquatic plants with less lignin content have potentials to be used as an alternative fiber source .
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Handmade paper industry is an environmental friendly and very promising industry for local entrepreneurship.
Two grams (2 g) of sample was weighted and placed in cellulose thimble and the cellulose was extracted by using Soxhlet apparatus with 2 : 1 alcohol acetone solution.
After 4 hours of extraction, sample was placed in desiccators until obtaining the constant weight.
In 2005, 17.4 million metric tons (9.27%) of nonwood fibers from 187.6 million metric tons global production of virgin pulp for paper and paperboard are produced .
In many countries, quantities of available wood are insufficient to meet the requirements and demands of pulp and paper especially in Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy, and Greece [3–5].