Visual Logic: We can think logically in a variety of ways; useful tools for VISUAL THINKING include visually logical organizing techniques — concept maps, matrices and diagrams (cluster, hierarchical, webbing, Venn,...), flowcharts,...
A simple model of science is PHEOC (Problem, Hypothesis, Experiment, Observe, Conclude).
When PHEOC, or a similar model, is presented — or is misinterpreted — as a rigid sequence of fixed steps, this can lead to misunderstandings of science, because the real-world process of science is flexible.
They compare these models to show their similarities & differences.
And they explain how both models describe a flexible process even though each model-framework has steps.
While we're trying to help students improve a wide variety of abilities, we can develop teaching strategies that will be effective for students with different LEARNING STYLES.
For example, we can help students understand-and-use...
Science Buddies has Steps of the Scientific Method with a flowchart showing options for flexibility of timing.
They say, "Even though we show the scientific method as a series of steps, keep in mind that new information or thinking might cause a scientist to back up and repeat steps at any point during the process.
) discovered functional connections between 3 Elements — PREDICTIONS (made by imagining in a Mental Experiment) and OBSERVATIONS (made by actualizing in a Physical Experiment) and GOALS (for a satisfactory Problem-Solution) — when they are used in 3 Comparisons: one Comparison is an evaluative REALITY CHECK; two Comparisons are evaluative QUALITY CHECKS.
Two Kinds of Design: This diagram distinguishes between Science-Design (usually it's just called Science, and is done mainly by using Reality Checks) and General Design (which includes Engineering & much more, and is done mainly by using Quality Checks) because this distinction is useful, because thinking about these two kinds of design helps us understand the problem-solving process we use for Science-Design and General Design and .