*For example, field-independent students in general do better than field-dependent students in tasks.*

In addition, each resource must be examined in light of what each different type of material contributes to the solution.

Critical literacy, or reading beyond the text, then, is a fundamental aspect of inquiry and so of problem-solving.

Generally, PBL tasks: Involve learners in gaining and organizing knowledge of content.

Inspiration and other concept-mapping tools like the app Popplet are useful for this.

Teachers must consider all of these ideas and challenges in supporting student problem-solving.

Characteristics of effective technology-enhanced problem-based learning tasks PBL tasks share many of the same characteristics of other tasks in this book, but some are specific to PBL.Search for critical literacy resources by using “critical literacy” and your grade level, and be sure to look at the tools provided in this text’s Teacher Toolbox. Problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching approach that combines critical thinking, problem- solving skills, and inquiry as students explore real-world problems.It is based on unstructured, complex, and authentic problems that are often presented as part of a project.As a result, according to the literature, most people use their personal understandings to try to solve open-ended problems, but the bias of limited experience makes it hard for people to understand the trade-offs or contradictions that these problems present.To solve such problems, students need to be able to use both problem-solving skills and an effective inquiry process. Inquiry in education is also sometimes called research, investigation, or guided discovery.PBL addresses many of the learning goals presented in this text and across the standards, including communication, creativity, and often production.Research is being conducted in every area from business to education to see how we solve problems, what guides us, what information we have and use during problem-solving, and how we can become more efficient problem solvers.Students apply critical and creative thinking skills to prior knowledge during the problem-solving process.The end result of problem-solving is typically some kind of decision, in other words, choosing a solution and then evaluating it. Close-ended problems are those with known solutions to which students can apply a process similar to one that they have already used.For example, if a student understands the single-digit process in adding 2 plus 2 to make 4, she most likely will be able to solve a problem that asks her to add 1 plus 1.Open-ended or loosely structured problems, on the other hand, are those with many or unknown solutions rather than one correct answer.

## Comments What Is Problem Solving Learning

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